The film references monks bribing a peasant girl with food in exchange for sexual favors, homosexual relationships between the monks, and accusations of characters having “intercourse with the devil”.
We see a naked man (no genitals are visible) on an autopsy table twice.
Men kiss each other on the lips a few times.
A young monk has sex with a peasant girl. It features her bare breasts and graphic shots of her butt including his butt and pubic hair, as well as some explicit thrusting.

A group of men sexually assault a peasant girl. A man rips off her robe. Breasts are seen. She is heard struggling and screaming throughout.


Film review:Translated by www.rabudo-ru.com


In Europe in the first half of the 14th century, the threat of invasion by nomadic peoples in the East decreased slightly, but another threat, the black death, began to prevail; Politically, the power of the Eastern Roman Empire declined gradually and was finally destroyed by the Turks a few years later; In the Catholic Church, the church was booming but increasingly corrupt. At that time, the popular theological thought was a complicated scholastic philosophy, but in this era, the thought of humanism also began to sprout and finally contributed to the later Renaissance.

Under the background of this era, Franciscan friar William from England and his disciples came to the Benedictine monastery in the mountains of northern Italy. There has just been a homicide here, and a debate Conference on theological doctrines will be held here in the next few days. Therefore, William must investigate the homicide before it, so as not to expand the situation at that time; However, during his seven days here, several homicides occurred one after another. These deaths were all librarians. All these events seemed to be related to a strange book in the library with the richest collection in the Christian world. Therefore, William had to investigate these things on the one hand, and fight against the conservative forces from the church on the other hand to find out the truth of the whole thing.

This is the story of the book “the name of the rose” and the film. I read the original of the book ten years ago and always wanted to see the film of the same name starring Sean Connery. Thanks to China’s board theft business, I finally found this popular film 20 years ago. Although the original is a little cumbersome and difficult to adapt, the film also visualizes the story to the greatest extent, With a bleak tone, he showed the audience such an era.

If you know the history of western philosophy, William of the Franciscans played by Sean Connery will know that this role is based on William of Occam. As the last batch of scholars in the era of scholastic philosophy, he is known as “invincible doctor” in the history of church and thought because of his erudition and ability. However, the era of scholasticism was also the era of “philosophy is the servant of theology”. At that time, the popular thought was mainly Thomas Aquinas, integrated Aristotle’s philosophy, and tried to prove the existence of God by means of Asian rational inference. Therefore, the ideological system was huge and cumbersome,

In addition, at that time, the ideological circle also fell into the dispute between nominalism and realism. The mainstream idea of the church was realism, that is, things in the ideological model were really perfect, and things in reality were imperfect; However, a small number of Nominalists, such as William ocain, believe that the things in these thoughts are abstract, just names. Moreover, he believes that only what we really feel is real, because general realists constantly add more and more explanations and explanations to the things in their thoughts in order to make their theories explain problems, This is the problem of scholastic philosophy, which leads to more and more cumbersome.

In order to solve this more and more complicated ideological dilemma, William OKAN put forward a very famous ideological method – Occam’s razor (Ockham’s razor). This ideological method can be defined as a sentence “do not add entities if it is not necessary”, which only recognizes what really exists, and those empty universal Essentials are useless cumbersome, Why bother to explain so many problems? This method has been widely used in various fields for thousands of years. In any field, if more than two schemes can achieve the same purpose, that is, selecting the simplest scheme is the best scheme. Don’t complicate things. For example, you chase a girl, Has she been trying so hard to make her fall in love with you? Or directly shout I love you to her. If you choose the latter scheme, if you fail, you can get a slap at most. If you succeed, it will save time and mind. OKAN’s razor is such an ideological tool. The really effective activities when we do things are only a small part of them, and they are usually hidden in complex things. Find the key parts and remove the redundant activities. Success is not so complicated.

This method of thinking also brought him trouble, because the razor was also like opposing the mainstream Aquinas’ theological method at that time. This method turned the problem about God into pure faith, which is something to believe with faith, not something that can be inferred by rational inference, and shaved the status of “God” from the process of logical inference; Therefore, he spent the rest of his life almost persecuted by the church, but his achievements in the history of thought were here. As soon as this method was put forward, it led to the collapse of scholastic philosophy, completely liberated philosophical thought from theology and became the pioneer of modern philosophy.

In the film, William took his apprentice to the monastery in 1327; But according to historical facts, William was in prison in Avignon church prison in France at this time. He didn’t escape until a year later and went to the Holy Roman Empire to accept the protection of the emperor. However, the story seems to assume that he had been released at this time. Therefore, it is mentioned in the film that he was detained in Avignon. The Franciscans to which William belongs is a congregation. This congregation believes that monks must learn the style of Christ in the world and live a poor life. In this way, they can escape from the secular world and concentrate on following Christ; They also believed that monks should donate all their possessions to the poor and live by begging.; In the film, William and a bunch of Franciscans wear gray robes, which is the characteristic of Franciscans and represents simplicity and poverty. The convent William came to was the Daoming convent, which was mainly a hermit. The monks were characterized by black robes.

When a series of murders occurred in this Dominican monastery, the monks had a panic. It was considered that the disasters of the last world in Revelation began to come. Among them, only William was calm. He observed the correlation and concluded that all these were caused by man; We don’t have to laugh at the monks’ seemingly “ignorance”. Their times and environment will naturally make them think about divine enlightenment. William used the razor method in his investigation. He investigated all the relevant places, completely shaved the “divine enlightenment”, which is impossible to get the truth, from the investigation process, and slowly deduced the truth,, From a modern point of view, such an investigation method is taken for granted, but at the time of the story, it must be said to be a victory of human rationality.

The clue of each homicide case points directly to a forbidden book. Every dead person has read this book. This book is the lost Volume II of Aristotle’s poetics. It is generally believed that the volume II of poetics is about comedy (the existing volume I is about tragedy). Comedy makes people laugh, which contradicts the hermit tradition of the Tao Ming church at that time, and even the conservative Christian thought, because happiness makes people better than suffering, so mankind no longer needs religious belief. At that time, only nobles and friars in Europe had the right to receive education and absorb knowledge. Whoever mastered knowledge would master power. Knowledge also made people more intelligent to think about things and pursue truth; Therefore, although the people who read the book died one by one, they still could not stop more monks’ desire for knowledge.

Halfway through the survey, the theological debate also began. Representatives of different orders and sects launched a big debate on kingship, ritual and church wealth with their own theological opinions. The above has described the Franciscans’ views on property. Historically, it was also because the Franciscans had a disagreement with the Pope on the issue of church property at that time; In terms of rituals, the mainstream thought of the church at that time believed that rituals came from God, so people could be saved by rituals, but William OKAN believed that people were saved mainly by their own faith, which also became the ideological basis of Martin Luther’s reform movement; In terms of kingship, the German Emperor and the pope had differences on some issues at that time, so the debate also focused on this difference. William ocan once wrote a paper on this issue, mainly discussing whether the Pope could become a legitimate supreme in both the church and the state; The derived question is whether secular authority directly originates from God? Then there is a question: does the Pope have the power to give secular rule to the emperor or monarch? He mainly believed that the church should not manage secular affairs and safeguarded the rights of the German emperor as much as possible. In fact, these debate issues are the essence of the thoughts formed by William OKAN’s experience in his life. The author of the original work shows all his thoughts in this debate regardless of time. In the film, it may only show the scene of discussing church property for the sense of rhythm and time limit.

The truth of the story is that the blind conservative Archbishop smeared poison on the book for fear that someone might see the content of the book, but the blind Archbishop must be familiar with the content of the book for fear that others would also see it. Why should he allow himself to know the content and not allow others to know it? On the one hand, it is based on the desire to master the voice of knowledge; On the other hand, based on the arrogance of defending the Tao, it seems that only he knows what is truth in the world, and others will doubt the doctrine after reading it; Can’t people who read books think? If faith is true, why are you afraid of the challenge of the contents of these books. The description of blind bishops is like a satire on today’s intellectuals. We absorb more knowledge, but lose our direction, but still think we have mastered the truth and produced the arrogance of knowledge; People are constantly pursuing the truth, but they often find that your truth is not equal to mine; Your kingcraft is not equal to mine. In this case, if you can’t emancipate your mind, you will form a closed system that can’t communicate. The most extreme result is that, As William said in the film, “Beware of prophets and those who are ready to die for the truth, because they usually pull many people to die with them, often first with them, and sometimes die for them.”

This is a film with suspense as the carrier. In fact, it is discussing many social, political, ideological and theological issues in the middle ages. If you have read the novel, you will know how difficult it is to adapt this film; The original author is a Semiologist, so the original novel is full of many brilliant semiotic reasoning. The film has been adapted as much as possible due to its rhythm and time. However, for readers who have read the original book, there are still some shortcomings, but it is worth seeing.

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