Gandhi is seen walking in shorts and a sash throughout the film, however he isn’t nude except from the waist up. There is no sex or any references to it in this movie.
A woman is briefly seen breast-feeding a child. Part of her nipple is seen.


Film review:Translated by www.rabudo-ru.com


Indian Mahatma Gandhi put forward the concept of civil rights struggle of “Non Violence and non cooperation” in South Africa at the age of 24. Compared with the bloody battlefield and life and death confrontation in history, his method is almost absurd; However, such a seemingly unreasonable method of struggle has achieved unprecedented success in the Indian independence movement and shocked the whole western world.

Gandhi’s “nonviolent” struggle was mainly used to fight against the unreasonable social legal system. He took the lead in burning good citizen cards in South Africa, refused to fingerprint, and openly resisted the British government’s salt sale in India. After he was arrested in 38 Lang area, he was ordered to leave 38 Lang by the court. Gandhi did not defend himself and disobeyed. He said he knew the law and broke the law and was willing to go to jail. Later, during the attack on the dalasana salt factory, his followers came forward in rows, facing the big stick of the guard police, and rolled down the ridge one by one. A row fell down, and the women took over and bandaged it. The next row rushed up without hesitation, without resistance, and tragically welcomed the baptism of blood.

The core of Gandhi’s “Non Violence, non cooperation” concept is to contrast the cruelty and ugliness of rulers and oppressors with self sacrifice, and make the other party wake up and repent with nobility and inferiority. This is very similar to the Christian practice of “hitting the left face and hitting the right face” and the Buddhist practice of “I don’t go to hell, who goes to hell”. The difference is that the latter is a metaphor and Gandhi is a practice of blood. From the brief description of the film, this method of civil rights struggle, which is completely contrary to people’s instinctive response, can work mainly because of two preconditions: first, the free reporting of the media; Second, the face of the British government.

Whether it is South Africa or India, the British government boasts that its colonization has brought each other an advanced mode of economic development and a civilized way of life. “Civilization” is the trump card played by the sun never setting empire in front of the world. No matter how sneaky, burning, killing and looting behind its back, it always has to sit upright, look rigorous and meticulous in every detail, To represent the royal family and the civilized state. In “four generations in one house”, Mr. Lao she depicts a fake foreign devil Ding John who works in the “old British House”. He doesn’t know Britain, but the British style can be learned conscientiously. Even sending a letter is behind his right hand and holding a tray high in his left hand. He comes and goes like a dance.

In the face of such a “civilized” and reasonable government, if you are more civilized and humane than him, and if you are publicized all over the world and make him unable to stand down, the purpose of the struggle will be achieved. But Margaret Burke white, an American photographer, once asked Gandhi, is “Non Violence and non cooperation” the best way to fight against the centralized dictatorship of the Nazi government?

Gandhi’s answer is a famous quote throughout the film: “when I despair, I will remember that in history, only truth and love can win. There are many tyrants and murderers in history, who may be invincible in the short term, but they will always fail. Think about it, it will always be so.”

Gandhi’s answer is to transcend the height of life and death. In his opinion, Jews willing to die in the face of Nazi massacres can make the enemy finally understand what human nature and dignity are; Refugees fleeing Palestine should also face the muzzle of the Arabs and consciously stand up and accept bullets. Even if they are drowned in the Black Sea, it is better to stand up their middle fingers for violent resistance.

I think Gandhi’s concept of human dignity of self sacrifice is very reasonable to some extent, or a belief. Gandhi lived a life of vegetarian abstinence, pursued a minimalist life of non materialism, spun and woven his own cloth, and his pursuit of spiritual level has long exceeded material food and clothing. In this case, the human body is only a temporarily borrowed skin bag, and spiritual perfection is the ultimate yardstick to measure the meaning of life. For this belief, life is not so important, and death is not very terrible. There is no significant difference between living one more day and living one less day. During the Indian independence movement, Gandhi fasted four times. The film emphasizes two times, one is to quell the violence of Indian civilians against British law enforcement personnel in 1922, and the other is that after independence, the religious contradiction between Muslims and Hindu people in India has become increasingly prominent. Gandhi insisted on a hunger strike in order to quell the religious hatred and killing in Manyan until all violent fighting stopped. It can be said that in the process of implementing the concept of “Non Violence”, Gandhi absolutely practiced it and took the lead. It was his willingness to sacrifice himself that confirmed his belief and pushed the originally weakest spiritual power to infinity, which could affect the whole country of India and even the whole western world.

But this belief beyond life and death is fraught with difficulties in practice. Not to mention how it is not in line with biological instinct to be calm and righteous in the face of danger, it is that free media + face government can pull down a large number of areas. Has North Korea considered face when unilaterally tearing up the nuclear non proliferation treaty? Sudanese President Omar Al Bashir was angrily kicked out 13 foreign aid organizations and closed three domestic aid agencies after he was accused by the International Criminal Court of committing 10 genocide crimes. In the end, the Darfur refugees suffered.

Is the opposite of “Non Violence” necessarily violence?

I don’t think so. Although Gandhi’s “Non Violence, non cooperation” is too pure and extreme and lacks extensive practical significance, I firmly believe that controlling violence with violence will reduce the rebels to the same depression as the victims, and the new regime finally established through violent resistance has personally experienced the convenience and intuition of violent means, In the future, it will be difficult to self-control – it is much easier to rule by violence from top to bottom than to resist by violence from top to bottom. It is the so-called retribution of grievances, endless.

If the two extremes of Gandhi’s self sacrifice “Non Violence” and violence are excluded, the civil rights movement seems to have only one way to protect rights by law. But this goes back to the initial question of Gandhi’s civil rights movement: what if the ruling law itself is unjust and it is an unjust social norm to oppose?

Perhaps the gay civil rights movement in the United States can be used as a reference.

In 1971, when Michael wetherbee of the American civil liberties League of Minnesota argued in the state Supreme Court that the state constitution should give same-sex couples the right to marry, a judge simply turned away from Michael wetherbee to show his contempt; Thirty seven years later, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, Maine and New Hampshire all declared gay marriage legal or unconstitutional. New Jersey and New York are also moving in this direction. In the article “the future of homosexuality” in the New York Book Review in July 2009, David Cole analyzed that a key reason for this change is the correct strategy of gay civil rights organizations: avoid the relatively conservative federal court in law and take the struggle line from state to state; Avoid radical step-by-step struggle methods, adopt strategic small-scale encroachment, start from the basic point of human rights, first abolish the illegality of homosexual acts, and then strive for the same civil rights and interests for homosexuals, then establish the concept of “civil union”, and give homosexual husbands and wives all relevant rights and interests except the name of “marriage”, until finally, The state Supreme Court will find that there is no substantive difference between “marriage” and “civil combination” except for the difference of name. Legally defending one against the other can only be a manifestation of discrimination.

The success of this strategy in the United States depends on the effectiveness of the American Constitution. The Supreme Court of the United States stated in 1996 that the history of the constitution “is the history of providing constitutional rights and protection to the once neglected and excluded people”. However, if a country has no constitution or overhead constitution, and the government does not protect citizens’ constitutional rights, the strategic civil rights struggle of step-by-step encroachment may still not work.

Can the opposite of “Non Violence” still be violence? In a country lacking constitutional protection, in the face of tyranny, dictatorship and unreasonable social order, is there another way of non violent civil struggle? I don’t know. After deep reflection, I only feel that the process of human civilization is difficult and suffering everywhere.

Fortunately, there are always Gandhi, December revolutionaries and Martin Luther King Jr. shining in the suffering, not completely dark; And they seem to have been saying don’t lose heart and continue to explore. At the end of the road, there will be dawn.

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