Heavy kissing and on several occasions hands caressing fully clothed breasts


Film review:Translated by www.rabudo-ru.com


The so-called epic films generally refer to those films with spectacular scenes, gorgeous settings, surrounded by grand Lyric theme music and great viewability. From the appearance, viscanti’s leopard has all the elements of an epic film: oil painting like picture texture, large-scale war and banquet scenes, a large number of characters and landscape luxury sets. But leopard is not only an epic film in film typology, it is a real epic. The “history and class consciousness” it contains, the “old system and revolution” it reflects, it shows the sense of time and space of an era, and its praise for its hero (hero) aristocratic class makes it close to the original definition of epic to the greatest extent. The only difference is that it is not about a nation, but about a class.

Roger Albert said leopard was a film directed by the only person who could direct it. This sounds like nonsense at first, but it makes sense after careful consideration. There are few noble born film directors, and there are almost no pure noble born like Visconti. The viscanti family has a prominent position in Italian history. The activities of this family can be seen in Machiavelli’s history of Florence. Therefore, like Prince salina in leopard, Visconti belongs to “a member of the old ruling class”. Making this film is like making his family affairs. Viscanti is not only an aristocrat, but also a Marxist. He is deeply influenced by the Marxist view of history. Embodied in leopard, he represents the modern European Revolution as the replacement and change between classes. This wonderful combination of noble and Marxist determines the relationship between viscanti and leopard, and also lays the emotional tone of the film’s sense of history.

Leopard is an epic dedicated to the nobility, but it is an elegy epic. It shows not the great achievements of this rising class, but its inevitable decline and destruction! In history, whenever the aristocracy declined and was replaced by a new class, someone would sing an elegy. 2500 years ago, the Greek aristocracy in the reign era was replaced by the civilian class representing democracy, and Pinda sang an elegy for them. In modern films, the decline of aristocratic spirit and the rise of new classes are represented by Renoir’s disillusionment, as far as I know. Different from the wisdom and soberness of the onlookers like Renoir, Visconti can’t cut off his blood connection with this class. For him, expressing the decline of the noble spirit is like expressing his own death. In Prince salina, the protagonist of the leopard, what we hear seems to be Visconti’s inner monologue.

However, we have to start with such a “creature” as aristocracy in history. Whether in the west, which has been generally democratized and emphasizes the equality of individual rights, or in China, which is full of upstarts and privileged classes, aristocracy is a very strange word. It is said that this “creature” has been extinct for a long time. Even in the era when there were still aristocrats, ordinary people didn’t know them very well. The priest of Prince salina’s family described the nobility to the civilians in the tavern: “It’s hard for the nobles to figure out that the world they live in is created by their troubles and joy over the past few centuries. The things you and I think are insignificant are very important to them. I don’t mean they are bad people, not at all. They are different. They don’t care about what we think is important, and we don’t care about what we think doesn’t matter Instead, they worry. For example, in Prince salina’s view, it would be a tragedy if he didn’t go to dunafukat for vacation, but if asked how he viewed the revolution, he would say that without revolution, everything would be the same. ” Although the priest dealt with aristocrats every day, his understanding of this class was quite superficial. He only knew that they were “different”, but he didn’t know what the difference was. In the view of outsiders, nobles should first occupy a large amount of property, but everyone knows that property and nobles cannot be equated. Some people may say that the reason why he has more property does not mean that he is an aristocrat, because aristocrats must first have aristocratic temperament. There is a passage in leopard that well illustrates the relationship between the cultivation of aristocratic temperament and property. Prince salina described his future son-in-law, Prince tacrodi, to businessman and Congressman Carlo giro. “Maybe no one can be as noble, sensitive and charming as tacrodi, unless his ancestors squandered, at least in Sicily.” The cultivation of aristocratic temperament requires not only a lot of money, but also the improper use of money, which may be the original sin of aristocrats and the root of their inevitable decline.

A class, like a person, can best reflect his quality and spiritual characteristics not when he is happy, but when he is in hardship and on the verge of death. Visconti chose such a moment to “speak up” for his class. Prince salina in the film is the spokesman of the aristocracy. He opens his mouth and closes his mouth to “we” and “this class”, but this character has not lost his own personality and charm. On the contrary, viscanti has not asked this character to say much positive remarks about the aristocracy. He only shapes this image and makes the audience feel this image, To show the spirit of nobility. Prince salina is first of all a guilty aristocrat. He knows that the aristocracy has an irreparable original sin: “for 25 centuries, the great civilizations we shoulder have come from the outside, not created by us, and can not be called our civilization. For 2500 years, we are nothing except colonists.” For some people, the downfall of aristocracy as a class is due to the degeneration of their own lives; For those real nobles, it is only because they bear a certain sense of guilt, and it is only because this sense of guilt suppresses their will to live. Prince salina in the film, at the beginning, maintained a vigorous erotic life. While maintaining a cunning respect for religion, he went to Palermo to find prostitutes for fun; Later, with the changes in the revolution and political situation, and with his step-by-step concession to the bourgeoisie represented by Carlo Giro, his will to life weakened step by step, He refused to invite him to participate in the new government official shivery: “the desire of Sicilians is to sleep in a dream… All the cries, even the most violent, are eager to forget, having fun is to forget, shooting is eager to die, sipping sweet drinks is for the ultimate peace, that is, death.” Sicily, an ancient land, seems to have become the embodiment of aristocrats as old as it. With the marriage between Prince tacrodi and Carlo Giro’s daughter angelica, Prince salina knew that the new couple in the future had appeared. After blessing them (“today, nothing is more beautiful than the new couple”), he came to the study alone, looked at the portrait of dying Santiago on the wall and began to think about death. The powerful will of the aristocracy is shrinking day by day. So far, it has reached the end. In Freudian terms, the internal drive of death has prevailed. However, for the nobility who does not lack faith, his life is not just a natural life. The death of life is not the disappearance and extinction, but some kind of return, which is combined with the eternal life and absolute concept. After the party, Prince salina walked home alone. On the way, he came to a square. Suddenly, he knelt down on one knee and prayed silently towards the sky: “pious star, when can I stay away from everything on earth and get eternal life in an eternal world.”

Viscanti did not deliberately beautify the nobility. He knew that they were not only noble in spirit, but also “mortals in troubled times”. In order to survive in the cruel historical changes and class changes, they had to take very practical actions. In the face of realistic political struggle, they were not a group of fantasy creatures. Although he knows that as the ruling class, “now everything is over”, every action taken by Prince salina in the film is the self-protection of this class. The most important action is to support his nephew tacrodi to marry angelica, the daughter of the bourgeois. He knows that this is one of the ways left by history for the nobility. In this typical marriage of the son of an elegant aristocrat and the daughter of a rich bourgeois, some of the aristocrats (young, visionary and realistic people like tacrodi) transformed into new rulers through alliance with the bourgeois. Prince salina himself, due to his heavy historical burden and continuous spiritual connection, resolutely accepted the fate that came to this class.

The epic of leopard is inseparable from its profound sense of history, which is first expressed as a distinct class consciousness. It represents an era of change, in which the decline of the nobility is inseparable from the appearance of the bourgeoisie. The theme of changing times is highlighted in the first scene of leopard. The first scene in the picture is the location of a manor. With the slow movement of the camera and the advancement of the lens, the audience found that Prince salina and his family were gathering in the living room for a family prayer meeting. After this picture lasted for several seconds, the devout prayer was gradually replaced by the noise outside the house, A servant informed that the body of a soldier had been found in the garden. After understanding the truth, the family priest crossed and said, “this is a revolution”.

Before the appearance of the bourgeoisie, leopard first shows the disintegration of the inner union of the old ruling class, that is, the separation between the Catholic Church and the aristocracy. The family priest in the film, in addition to full of dogma, is a shy and cowardly person. He has a premonition of the crisis that the changes of the times will bring to the church, but he is completely at a loss. He only hopes to bind the nobles with dogma and make them bear all responsibilities. The decline of religious spirit can also be seen from the pious wife of Prince salina. She confirmed Nietzsche’s conclusion that Christianity has degenerated into a sentimental religion with her sensitive and fragile nerves and crying style. The church and the nobility were suspicious of each other and worried that the other party would be the first to sell themselves. The priest worried that the nobility would “reach an agreement with liberals and even Freemasons” to divide up the church’s property at the expense of religion. Prince salina also knew, “if religion can save itself by sacrificing us, do you think it won’t do so?”

Under this ruling crisis, tacrodi, Prince salina’s nephew, was the first to respond. He knew that “everything must be changed if it is to remain eternal”. Therefore, when the revolution broke out, he was the first to participate as an aristocrat. Visconti used a symbolic perspective to show tacrodi’s family seeing him off when he left home to join the Garibaldi army. A road extends from Prince salina’s manor to the distant horizon. Tacrodi, riding a horse, is moving farther and farther along the road. Nearby, his family watched him with sadness and uncertain future. People here are still unfamiliar with what is at the end of the horizon, but everything indicates that the actions there will change the face of the world, and one of the best members of them has taken the initiative to find out, and he will become a newcomer in the new era.

Leopard not only created the noble image of Prince salina, but also created the bourgeois like Carlo giro. It is not difficult to see that Visconti looks at asset owners with colored glasses. In his films, Carlo Giro looks more or less like a clown in front of the noble prince salina. He lacks the tenacious spirit of Robinson as a pioneer of the new era, but there is no lack of greed and speculation of those characters in Balzac’s works. The film expresses the image of bourgeois in the eyes of civilians through the mouth of poor painter heatho Dumay: “Your Highness, the truth is that he is very rich and influential. He is a miser but as clever as a devil. You should see his appearance last April and may. He shuttles back and forth like a bat, rides a carriage, rides a mule, walks rain or shine. Where he passes, he will form a secret organization to pave the way for the people who will come. He is a disaster. This is just the beginning of his career. Let’s try again In a few months, he will become a member of the Turin Parliament. In a few years, when the church property is auctioned, he can occupy Mara and von dahiro’s property without paying a penny. Finally, he will become the largest rich man in the province, which is Carlo Giro, the future master. ” In leopard, Visconti absorbed Marx’s class theory, but he did not think that class replacement included some kind of progressive process. In his eyes, history was full of strong will and the so-called “naked truth”. Prince salina in the film said, “we are leopards and lions. We are replaced by jackals and hyenas. Everyone – leopards, lions, jackals and hyenas feel very noble.” Those who have the ability to rule are pragmatic people. Idealists like Garibaldi are doomed to failure. Although people like Carlo Giro have “no illusions” like Prince salina, “he can create illusions when needed”, that is, he can provide proof of the legitimacy of his actions through slogans such as justice and progress.

The prince of Salina has lost the ability to create illusions. “He crossed two worlds and felt uneasy in both worlds”. Now he just wanted to sleep and find peace in the eternal world. Therefore, in the last act, we saw his figure gradually disappear into the darkness of the square lens. This is a curtain call and farewell, not only for Prince salina himself, And for that ancient class.

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