A woman dances in a nightclub, an “erotic dance”, wearing pasties covering her nipples, and dances provocatively.
Several women’s bare breasts can be seen through very thin clothing.


Film review:Translated by www.rabudo-ru.com


Metropolis is a classic expressionist film directed by German film director Fritz Lang. In the history of science fiction films, this film also has a milestone status. Some of its motifs and classic scenes are repeatedly used by some science fiction films in the future. Due to repeated editing, this film seems to have a lot of incomprehensible places in the eyes of many people.

However, if we look at the film from a Christian perspective, we will find that it is actually a religious film in the cloak of science fiction film. Although there are many anti Utopian elements in the film, the overall tone is an optimistic religious Utopian atmosphere. Now let’s invite you to analyze the symbols in metropolis.

Fredsen, the capitalist — the master of metropolis, Yahweh

The 1920s was a period of rapid development of capitalism. Before the global economic crisis in 1929, although it was under the rule of an extremely unstable Weimar Republic government, the German economy also took advantage of this spring breeze of development and worked hard to develop its own economy in struggle and swing. In this case, capitalists have a high and unquestionable sense of authority.

It must be emphasized that in the film, fredsen not only symbolizes the whole capitalist class, but also a metaphorical religious symbol: God, the Lord. The reasons are as follows.

First of all, he is the Lord of the whole metropolis. What’s interesting is that in the English version of the Bible, the name “Lord” is written in God or Lord. In other words, as the master of the whole metropolis, fredsen enjoys high authority in the whole metropolis. His words can make people fall into the abyss of despair (as can be seen from his dismissal of the supervisor). He always monitors the operation of machines under the whole metropolis and is also thinking about the fate of workers – although the latter does not know it, Many of his scenes at the beginning of the film are standing in the window of the towering building overlooking everything outside. The director spared no effort to let the audience understand that this is a master in charge of everything.

Secondly, he could have suppressed the workers’ riots, but he just told the foreman and told the workers through the foreman that if the machines were smashed, their homes would be flooded. As in the Bible, the Lord knows the sins of the world, but he only guides the world through some prophets and later Jesus, but rarely makes complete and complete destruction by himself. In this regard, the director not only wants to explain that “destroying machines can not bring freedom”, but also a process for people to witness their own atrocities leading to the destruction of their homes, but also wants to metaphor a series of suffering caused by human beings taking a series of wrong behaviors that want to “pursue freedom” because they are unable to communicate with God.

Finally, it was his own son, Fritz, who acted as a mediator between him and the workers. Although he didn’t voluntarily send his son down in the film, he didn’t restrict fretz’s action (he could have locked fretz in the garden and didn’t let him out, but there wouldn’t be this film). It can be said that fretz went down to the workers with his acquiescence and went deep into the workers completely. Therefore, it is not surprising to regard the capitalist fredsen as a symbol representing the LORD God.

Female teacher Mary – Virgin Mary / prophet

“Look, these are your brothers.” Fritz, who was playing with his female partners by the fountain, suddenly saw a group of ragged boys and girls pouring into the door. A simple female teacher led them. What she said deeply shocked Fritz, who was carefree and had fun, and made him have the impulse to “go down”. Although this Maria did not give birth to his body, she really made fretz completely become another person and reborn his soul.

The name of Mary itself has a strong religious color. Previously, preaching patience and waiting to workers in ancient tombs made her have a religious color beyond the Virgin Mary, which made her undertake the work of prophets in the Old Testament – predicting the arrival of Jesus Christ. Therefore, when talking about the religious meaning of the film, many people will completely place these religious symbols on Mary, but in fact, Mary symbolizes not only the prophet who predicted the arrival of Jesus, but also the Virgin Mary who gave birth to Jesus.

In addition, in terms of role setting, since there are many versions of the film at the time of screening, in one version, the capitalist fredsen has a wife named hel, and Maria and Haier look almost the same. In a sense, she is the embodiment of Haier. From this point of view, it strengthens her meaning as the metaphor of “Virgin Mary”.

Foreman – Prophet / Apostle

When many people watch metropolis, they mostly focus on several main characters, such as fredson, fretz, Maria and inventor rotwan, but in fact, the foreman (one or two) is also an indispensable character in the whole film. Since the specific difference between the two foremen is really very small, I simply combined them into one role for analysis.

First, the foreman facilitated Fritz’s action to go to the factory to find out. The dismissed foreman came out of the metropolitan master’s office and almost wanted to commit suicide. At this time, Fritz rushed out of the slash, grabbed the foreman and said, “I need your help.” Before that, he had just learned about the existence of the underground world from Maria, so he decided to find out, but he couldn’t go alone, so he came to the foreman for help. According to the Bible, before Jesus went out to preach, John the Baptist preached in the wilderness to “prepare the word of the Lord”. Through baptism, Jesus was publicly declared by God as “this is my beloved son”. In the years after that, he went deep into the villages of Galilee and began his missionary experience; In the film, with the help of the foreman, Fritz enters the factory, sees the huge machine that devours the workers’ lives, and starts his work as a “heart” or “mediator”. Therefore, the foreman here plays the role of John the Baptist, that is, the prophet.

Secondly, when the workers decided to destroy the machine at the instigation of Maria, the foreman stopped the crazy action of the workers (although it was very inevitable to fail), and loudly told the workers that the result of doing so would only destroy their own homes. When the workers were still determined to go their own way, the foreman had to inform the owner of the metropolis, the capitalist fredson, and the answer was: let them go. At this time, the role of foreman became the late Old Testament prophet image in the Bible, which warned the people not to surpass crime and was completely ignored by the people.

Thirdly, when the workers were immersed in the joy of destroying the machine, it was also the foreman who came out to question “where are your children”, and let them fall from the peak of populist joy to the desperate situation where their children’s lives were seriously threatened. This scene also has a symbolic meaning: after human beings indulge in challenging the authority of God, they always have to taste the bitter fruit, but it is often their children rather than themselves who bear the bitter fruit. In this scene, the role of the foreman is more similar to the Apostle who preached the gospel and wanted people to repent in the New Testament.

Finally, when Fritz and rotwan fought on the roof, the foreman found them first, guided the people to watch, and made peace on behalf of workers and capitalists at the end. One might ask, what does this symbolize? In fact, here is a real fight instead of the war predicted in the Bible, and the discovery on the scene instead of prediction. The foreman here played not only the Apostle John who wrote the book of revelation, but also the representative of the human church. He became the first person to make peace with God (shown in the film as the capitalist fredson).

Therefore, the foreman’s role and performance in this film, every move has a very significant metaphorical significance and performance value, which can’t be ignored.

Fritz, the son of the capitalist – Jesus Christ

In fact, the author realized that the religious meaning of the film was to find out from fretz how hard the workers in the factory were doing. Even if they stopped for a few seconds, there might be an explosion, which would put all the workers in danger of their lives. Therefore, after a worker fainted, he resolutely decided to replace him. At this time, a worker gave him a suit of work clothes to wear, so Fritz, who was originally wearing beautiful shorts (to a certain extent, it symbolized the innocent young man and the beautiful scene when he was the “son of God”), suddenly changed into dark and clumsy work clothes.

When I saw this scene, a word jumped into my mind: Tao becomes flesh. The positioning of the “religious fable” of the whole film is also determined. In the whole film, fretz’s identity as a “metaphor of Jesus Christ” is obvious and beyond doubt.

First of all, after seeing Maria bring a group of workers’ children to the garden and say to him, “look, these are your brothers”, he resolutely had the idea of “go down and have a look”. After arriving at the factory, on the one hand, he witnessed a machine explosion, and thus had the illusion of “the devil’s door that devours people”; On the other hand, it also made him choose to take over his job because he sympathized with the tired workers. After personally experiencing the heavy and repetitive work, he fell on the machine and cried out painfully: “father, I never knew that ten hours would be a torture.” Here, he symbolizes the incarnation of Jesus, who feels the suffering of the world. He gave up the leisurely and happy life in the paradise garden and willingly went through the hard work of the bottom workers. It is true that some people think that he is infatuated with and longing for Maria, but it is unlikely that a woman is willing to work ten hours for a worker he doesn’t know, especially others are not sure that Maria will come to the factory. Therefore, instead of using “love” to explain the plot, it is better to use “Christian fable” to explain it.

Secondly, when telling the story of Babel Tower to the workers, Maria said that “the mind and hands can not communicate well, so the heart needs to be the mediator”, and constantly promised the workers that their mediator will come soon. At the end of the play, Maria repeated the prophecy again. Fritz came forward, took his father’s hand (symbolizing the Lord) and the foreman’s hand (symbolizing human beings) in one hand, and guided the two hands together and held them tightly. The symbolic meaning of this picture is really familiar to those who are familiar with Christianity: through Jesus Christ, mankind can reconcile with God who was originally isolated from them, so that the cause of heaven can continue to be built. In the whole film, fretz held his heart tightly for many times (so that the author guessed whether he would fall down with a heart attack). On the one hand, this action means that he is painful or nervous in his heart, on the other hand, it actually keeps suggesting to the readers that he is a “heart” – mediator. In other words, Fritz here plays the image of “Jesus Christ, the only bridge between man and God”.

Thirdly, when the workers smashed the machine, the underground of the workers’ residential area began to spray water (it is worth mentioning that the scene here is very similar to the fountain where fretz and his female partner played around at the beginning of the film, which should be regarded as a echo relationship, but fretz here is no longer a young man playing), fretz rushed into the workers’ residential area, Help Maria and other nannies save the workers’ children. The children had great hopes for fretz, so they did not hesitate to follow his lead and fled from the workers’ residential area where the flood spread in the direction indicated by the foreman. On the one hand, this scene can be regarded as “the realization of the prophet’s prophecy”, because in the Bible, almost everything Jesus Christ did was predicted in the Old Testament. It can be said that the prophet also pointed out what Jesus wanted to do; On the other hand, it can also be seen as the image and action of Jesus who took the initiative to save the innocent victims.

Finally, at the end of the film, he fought with the inventor Luo tewang, although Luo tewang had the upper hand at the beginning and even knocked Fritz to the ground. But Fritz finally kicked rottweng off the roof and the inventor fell to death. It can be said that this scene is the metaphor of the devil being driven into the lake of fire in the book of revelation. At this time, Fritz also became the image metaphor of Jesus who was “better than the devil”.

In fact, the whole film can be seen as a record of the restoration of a good relationship between the master of the metropolis and the workers at the bottom. Although at the beginning, due to the obstacles of situation, status and other factors, the bottom workers carried out their work mechanically like machines – this was the situation often experienced by people who were new in the era of large machine production and often deadlocked in labor relations at that time; After entering the 20th century, due to the development of science and technology, people’s beliefs were tortured, which made people live like walking corpses because they doubt their beliefs and lose their beliefs. But the final reconciliation picture expresses a good expectation of the director and the original author of the novel, not only the reconciliation between workers and capitalists, but also the reconciliation between people who have lost their faith and God.

Babel Tower — the establishment of the kingdom of heaven

The appearance of the tower of Babel makes the religious meaning of the film stronger. But what is interesting is that the story of Babel here is not the tower of heaven that human beings want to build in order to challenge God’s authority mentioned in genesis, but a huge project to praise God and communicate with God. In the Bible, the tower of Babel was abandoned because God changed people’s accent; In the story of the tower of Babel mentioned in the film, because the builder could not understand the blueprint of the designer, he rose up in order to resist his hard work, and finally demolished half of the tower of Babel. Here, the tower of Babel is actually narrated as a symbol of the “great project that cannot be completed”, and this “great project” actually corresponds to the establishment of the kingdom of heaven in Christianity.

In the doctrine of Christianity, God created man to establish his own heaven on earth and let people enjoy paradise with themselves. However, because human beings do not understand God’s plan, they challenge God’s authority and commit crimes repeatedly, so that they are isolated from God, and the kingdom of heaven cannot be established. They even demolished and built part of the kingdom of heaven and destroyed the Great Wall by themselves. In the 1920s, it was the era of the roaring development of the machine industry, but this destructive development also brought various threats to the human living environment. Human beings are tearing down the earth world created by God. Therefore, this worry, the metaphor expressed in the film, is the story of the tower of Babel. From the perspective of struggle philosophy, this philosophy of advocating patience and reconciliation is really a manifestation of weakness; But from the perspective of biblical interpretation, it is an expectation for people to find and know Jesus again and make peace with God again.

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